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More, on HOW Solar Works


Cell Layers


A top, phosphorus-diffused silicon layer carries free electrons - un-anchored particles with negative charges. A thicker, boron doped bottom layer contains holes, or absences of electrons, that also can move freely. In effect, precise manufacturing has instilled an electronic imbalance between the two layers.

Sun Activation


  • Photons bombard and penetrate the cell.

  • They activate electrons, knocking them loose in both silicon layers.

  • Some electrons in the bottom layer sling-shot to the top of the cell.

  • These electrons flow into metal contacts as electricity, moving into a circuit throughout a 60-cell module.

  • Electrons flow back into the cell via a solid contact layer at the bottom, creating a closed loop or circuit.



Powering Homes and Businesses with Solar


Current leaving a module, or array of modules, passes through a wire conduit leading to an inverter. This device, about the shape of a waffle iron, inverts direct current, which flows with a fixed current and voltage, into alternating current, which flows with oscillating current and voltage. Appliances worldwide operate on AC.


From the inverter, the solar-generated power feeds into circuitry of a household, business or power plant and onto the region's electrical grid. A remote, or independent, power system also can form a self-contained circuit without connecting to the grid. The off-grid system, however, requires batteries to store power for times, such as night, when modules do not capture enough light energy from the sun.


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